NFAR AND AGK Collaboration: Literature vs. Systematic Review

Interested in research but don’t know where to start? This Saturday, November 13th from 9:00AM to 10:00AM PST, NFAR’s co-editor-in-chief Tiffany Tran will be collaborating with AGK Gamma Chapter at CSPM to present “Literature Review vs. Systematic Review” to go over the methods and components of a good review essential to getting published in an academic journal. Hope to see you there! Here is the meeting link.

2021-2022 NFAR: Call for Papers Open!

To the podiatry classes of 2022, 2023, 2024, and 2025:

The National Foot & Ankle Review is an annual student-produced journal, created 20 years ago by Dr. Burns to help students gain experience in podiatric medical research and showcase your research interests during the clerkship/residency application process. NFAR is being led by Dr. Stamps for the eighth year in a row at the California School of Podiatric Medicine (CSPM) at Samuel Merritt University. NFAR accepts original manuscripts from all schools of podiatric medicine. The finished product is distributed to schools, clerkship programs, and residencies around the country.

Submission guidelines:

Please submit a proposed topic and await approval as we do not want repeats from previous years or duplicates for the current year’s publication. Articles published in the past have been predominantly limited to reviews, meta-analyses, and case reports. A list of NFAR articles from 2005-2021 can be found in the attached documents. Topic submissions are due October 10th, 2021 at 11:59pm PST. To make things clear, all you need to submit is just a phrase i.e. Flexible Fixation of Lisfranc Injuries. There is no written proposal. The NFAR editors will help you improve your paper over the next few months and the manuscript will be finalized mid-late spring. You do NOT need a team to submit a topic but is highly recommended so you don’t get overwhelmed with the workload. Please email your topic to Note: the earlier you submit your topic for approval, the more time you have to write your articles.

When writing your paper, pay special attention to the NFAR guidelines, which details the types of sections that are typically included in each type of article, as well as, instructions for proper text and file formatting. Submissions that do not meet these requirements will not be accepted for publication. The abstract must be submitted by October 24th, 2021 at 11:59pm PST. All completed articles must be received by November 7th, 2021 at 11:59pm PST in order for the journal to be sent out to all the residency programs in the country, as well as to CSPM alumni and associates. A guideline for proper formatting of submissions can be found in the attached documents.

If you would like to submit an article, but are having trouble picking a topic, utilize your faculty members and faculty clinicians. Also, it is a great idea to use your clinical experience as a starting point for finding topics of interest.

Please let us know if you have any questions.


Tiffany Tran, Editor-in-Chief of National Foot & Ankle Review

Necrotizing Fasciitis in the Lower Extremity: A Literature Review

Farheen Iqbal, B.S., Mohammad Junayed Khan, B.A.

Necrotizing fasciitis in the lower extremity is a lifethreatening soft tissue infection and is one of the few podiatric surgical emergencies. With a nonspecific clinical presentation, this infection can often be misdiagnosed. Diabetes mellitus is the most common predisposing factor. Behavioral risk factors include smoking and intravenous drug use. Necrotizing fasciitis is subdivided into three types based on bacterial etiology: type
I is a polymicrobial form, type II is a Streptococcus form, and type III is a gram negative form. In addition to clinical findings, diagnostic imaging such as ultrasound, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging can assist diagnosis. Antibiotic therapy and surgical debridement are the keys to treatment, with amputation occurring frequently, especially among patients with diabetes mellitus.

Aurotherapy: A Literature Review and its Implications for the Treatment of Hypergranulation Tissue in Wounds

Lisa Yoon, B.A., Jose Lingao, B.A.

Chronic ulcerations account for a large proportion of the total cost of wound care in the United States, yet only a small fraction of the population suffers from these wounds. Therefore, it is imperative to research and develop alternative treatment options that are both efficacious and economical. Aurotherapy, the use of gold compounds in wound care, has been gaining traction in nonhuman trials. Gold is proposed to increase healing rates by inhibiting matrix metalloproteinases and TGF-B and by enhancing angiogenesis and collagen synthesis. Trials involving human applications, however, are limited in the medical literature. This paper reviews the research to date investing gold and its
potential application in wound care.

The Use of Prophylactic Vitamin C for Prevention of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome in the Foot and Ankle: A Review of the Literature

Stephen Kriger, B.A., Shontal Behan B.S., Sara Shirazi, B.A.

Complex regional pain syndrome is a chronic pain disorder, which typically occurs following trauma or surgery. The condition involves the extremities and is
characterized by disabling pain out of proportion, edema, vasomotor instability, and impaired motor function. While research has not been able to agree on a specific
treatment or prevention of the syndrome, prophylactic vitamin C has been described as a promising, effective form of prevention if given directly following traumatic fracture or surgical intervention.

Literature Review: Double Osteotomy of the First Metatarsal for Hallux Abducto Valgus

Caroline Ko, B.S., Isaiah Song, B.S.

A double osteotomy of the first metatarsal is a combined procedure of a proximal and distal osteotomy of the first metatarsal. The technique provides a large angular correction for severe cases of hallux abducto valgus while minimizing the rate of recurrence and preserving the first metatarsophalangeal joint articulation. Historically, this procedure has had major complications, including shortening of the first metatarsal, stiffness of the first metatarsophalangeal joint, and avascular necrosis of the first metatarsal head. The traditional double osteotomy of the first metatarsal has evolved
with the goal of minimizing the aforementioned complications. The Peterson approach maintains the length of the metatarsal while preserving the recurrence rate.
The modified Peterson approach incorporates a medial plate and screws and reduces first metatarsophalangeal joint stiffness. Minimally invasive percutaneous approaches
of the procedure have been suggested to lower risk of avascular necrosis. This literature review provides an overview of double osteotomies of the first metatarsal and a discussion of associated outcomes and complications.

An Alternative for Minimally Invasive Osteotomies: The Gigli Saw Technique

Megan Ishibashi, B.S., Toby Ishizuka, B.A.

Osteotomies that require a large incision site and  are performed with a high-energy instrument may result in neurovascular injury and postoperative wound complications.
The Gigli saw technique is a minimally invasive alternative to open dissection osteotomies. This technique uses a flexible stainless steel cable with attached
handles in a reciprocating pattern to cut through bone. This review aims to introduce this procedure to the podiatric medical student, so that one can consider this technique as a surgical option in a patient with peripheral vascular disease, soft tissue injury, or osteoporotic bone quality. This article will review several studies and surgical textbooks to explain how to use a Gigli saw in podiatric surgeries and describe the strengths, weaknesses, and future implications of this minimally invasive technique.

Assessment and Treatment of Ankle Joint Equinus

Luke McCann, B.S., M.S.

Ankle joint equinus is frequently mentioned as a major deforming force of the lower extremity. However, it is rarely considered as a primary diagnosis of foot and ankle problems, rather, it is viewed as a secondary factor that often receives inadequate attention. Visual inspection of non-weightbearing ankle dorsiflexion, without the use of a goniometer, is frequently how clinicians diagnose equinus. Interventions including
heel lifts, stretching, injections, and splinting are some of the conservative treatment options available. Surgical treatment is a more definitive treatment option, of which there are a variety of procedures available. A thorough understanding of assessment, as well as treatment options for equinus, is critical for the podiatric physician when making decisions managing this condition.

Literature Review: Implementing Angiosome-guided Revascularization for Lower Extremity Wounds

Meghan Teague, B.S., Lewis Kane, B.A. M.S., Shontal Behan, B.S

Angiosome theory was originally described in the context of plastic surgery and is commonly used to guide revascularization interventions in patients with ischemic foot wounds. This approach asserts that the foot and ankle can be divided into territories (angiosomes) that are each supplied by a primary vessel. Restoring arterial supply to an angiosome may therefore enhance wound healing. However, dynamic vascular anatomy, diseased patient populations, and varied wound distributions have made research on angiosomedirected revascularization strategies difficult to interpret. As a result, there is no current consensus regarding the validity of angiosome theory in ischemic wound therapy. Here we provide a brief overview of angiosome theory, the data supporting and refuting it, and potential approaches for future research.